Allergic rhinitis : Allergic rhinitis is an allergic inflammation of the nasal airways. It occurs when an allergen, such as pollen, dust, or animal dander (particles of shed skin and hair) is inhaled by an individual with a sensitized immune system. In such individuals, the allergen triggers the production of the antibody immunoglobulin E (IgE), which binds to mast cells and basophils containing rhinitis caused by pollens commonly called hay fever or seasonal allergy.
(1) ANTIHISTAMINES - Azelastine Hydrochloride
(2) CORTICOSTEROIDS - Beclometasone, Betamethasone,Budesonide,Fflunisolide,Fluticasone, Mometasone, and Triamcinolone
(3) DECONGESTANTS - Cromoglicate
Hay fever : Allergic rhinitis caused by grass pollens, it is known as hay fever. Treatment Antihistamines Antihistamine drugs can be taken orally and nasally to control symptoms such as sneezing, rhinorrhea, itching, and conjunctivitis. Steroids Intranasal corticosteroids are used to control symptoms associated with sneezing, rhinorrhea, itching, and nasal congestion. Other Other measures that may be used second line include: decongestants, cromolyn, leukotriene receptor antagonists, and nonpharmacologic therapies such as nasal irrigation
Edema : Edema is swelling caused by excess fluid trapped in your body's tissues. Although edema can affect any part of your body, it's most commonly noticed in your hands, arms, feet, ankles and legs. Edema can be the result of medication, pregnancy or an underlying disease — often heart failure, kidney disease or cirrhosis of the liver. Taking medication to remove excess fluid and reducing the amount of salt in your food usually relieves edema. When edema is a sign of an underlying disease, the disease itself requires separate treatment. There are many types of edema. The most common ones are: ? Peripheral edema - in the feet (pedal edema), ankles, legs, hands and arms. ? Cerebral edema - in and around the brain (cerebral edema). ? Eye edema - in and around the eyes, . macular edema, corneal edema, periorbital edema (puffiness around the eys. Macular edema is a serious complication of diabetic retinopathy. ? Signs and symptoms of edema include: • Swelling or puffiness of the tissue directly under your skin • Stretched or shiny skin • Skin that retains a dimple after being pressed for several seconds • Increased abdominal size Medications : • NSAIDs (ibuprofen, naproxen) • Calcium channel blockers • Corticosteroids (prednisone, methylprednisolone) • Pioglitazone and rosiglitazone • Pramiprexole