Lifestyle changes (in nutrition and physical activity) are clearly important to delay the development of type 2 diabetes in individuals with insulin resistance and are the primary recommendation for prevention of diabetes in high-risk individuals. Metformin is the only drug recommended by guidelines, for those patients at highest risk. Education about these changes must be directed to all groups at risk for type 2 diabetes. Childhood obesity is epidemic and on the rise in the developed countries. Changes must be made in homes and school cafeterias to ensure healthier nutrition .
Many diets have been proposed for the management of Crohn's disease, and many do improve symptoms, but none have been proven to cure the disease.  The specific carbohydrate diet usually requires adjustments by patients; if a patient finds that certain foods increase or decrease symptoms, they may adjust their diet accordingly. A food diary is recommended to see what positive or negative effects particular foods have. A low residue diet may be used to reduce the volume of stools excreted daily. People with lactose intolerance due to small bowel disease may benefit from avoiding lactose -containing foods. Patients who cannot eat may be given total parenteral nutrition (TPN), a source of vitamins and nutrients.