Awareness and educational efforts are working to help prevent anabolic steroid abuse in schools and communities. The Adolescents Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids (ATLAS) and the Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise and Nutrition Alternatives (ATHENA) programs, funded by the NIDA, and supported by the Oregon Health & Science University programs is teaching athletes that they do not need steroids to build powerful muscles and improve athletic performance. These programs provide weight-training and nutrition alternatives, increase healthy behaviors, less likelihood to try steroids, and less likelihood to engage in other dangerous behaviors such as drinking and driving, use of marijuana and alcohol , and and improved body image. Bother Congress and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration endorsed these model prevention programs. 4
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) were initially created for therapeutic purposes, and synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone. Due its great anabolic effects, these drugs are being used on a large scale, for the improvement of sports performance. In this present study, we aim to show the history of it’ use, present their mechanisms of action, more particularly its use correlate with improved body composition, muscle mass, aerobic capacity and verify their possible side effects, analyzing their use therapeutic and indiscriminate, through direct scientific research with the sports. Sources were reviewed scientific the following search engines: PUBMED, LILACS and SCIELO. The results showed that in presence of a suitable AAS and diet can contribute to increases in body weight, particularly lean body mass and muscle strength gains achieved by high intensity exercise, these effects can be further potentiated, the use of supraphysiological doses, but in the aspect of aerobic power, there are not scientific evidence to support their improvement. Regarding side effects, the use of AAS, is related to several complications in the liver, cardiovascular system, reproductive system and psychological characteristics, always assigned by the non-therapeutic and abuse of AAS. Thus we conclude that the use of AAS, are directly linked to gains muscle mass, strength, as well several side effects, always assigned to abusive and indiscriminate doses, it is noteworthy that the scientific literature, still has a certain lack of studies, mainly randomized, controlled, with supraphysiological doses in human, so many effects are still unknown.
As indicated in previous sections of this review, all anabolic steroids produce acceleration in linear growth in children with short stature. However, the rapid masculinization induced by testosterone and other anabolic steroids and especially the disproportionately rapid epiphyseal maturation produced by these compounds have brought this form of therapy for short stature into disrepute. Not all investigators concur that testosterone therapy inevitably results in reduction of eventual adult height attainment and, depending on the age of onset of therapy and the dose employed, it has been reported that adult height attainment equals or exceeds the adult height prediction at the time of instituting therapy. Attempts to synthesize anabolic steroids with improved anabolic/androgenic ratios have been continuing for many years. Among currently available anabolic steroids it appears that the best separation of anabolic and androgenic properties has been attained with oxandrolone. This is reflected by the fact that most recent studies of growth promotion by anabolic steroids have employed this compound. From the results of these studies, it appears that doses of this drug capable of significant stimulation of growth generally do not cause excessive masculinization or unacceptably rapid acceleration of epiphyseal maturation and do not compromise eventual height attainment. Certain studies mentioned above suggest that it might be possible to devise therapeutic programmes employing other anabolic steroids which would produce equally satisfactory results. However, because of the more favourable anabolic/androgenic ratio of oxandrolone it seems likely that the increasing trend toward use of this drug for growth promotion will continue.